With many thanks to Merlin Schwaiger – Senior CRM Consultant at PowerObjects for writing this post on how to support MS CRM 2011 Outlook Client on Windows and Outlook 2013.
Long story shortened:
The x64 installer for the CRM 2011 Outlook client does not include everything necessary for the client to work.
You must download the x64 installer for SQL Compact 3.5.
You must upgrade the x64 version of SQL Compact 3.5 to version 3.5.8082.0 with the hotfix.
At this point the Outlook client should be able to connect to your CRM 2011 organization.